Annual Report 2021–2022 References 

Implementing a newborn screening programme: our experience in Kaduna State, Nigeria 

  1. Archer NM, Inusa B, Makani J et al. Enablers and barriers to newborn screening for sickle cell disease in Africa: results from a qualitative study involving programmes in six countries. BMJ Open 2022;12:e057623.  
  2. Inusa BP, Daniel Y, Lawson JO et al. Sickle Cell Disease Screening in Northern Nigeria: The Co-Existence of Β-Thalassemia Inheritance. Pediat Therapeut 2015;5:doi: 10.4172/2161-0665.1000262.  
  3. City Population. Accessed 31 July 2022. 
  4. Frömmel C. Newborn Screening for Sickle Cell Disease and Other Hemoglobinopathies: A Short Review on Classical Laboratory Methods – Isoelectric Focusing, HPLC, and Capillary Electrophoresis. Int J Neonatal Screen 2018;4:39.  
  5. Dogara L, Hsu L, Atoyebi W. Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Detecting Normal and Variant Haemoglobins by Isoelectric Focusing. 2019. Collection of ARISE NBS Programme, Kaduna, Nigeria.  

Tackling bird flu in the UK 

  1. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Factsheet on A(H5N1) ( 
  2. Lean FZX, Vitores AG, Reid SM et al. Gross pathology of high pathogenicity avian influenza virus H5N1 2021-2022 epizootic in naturally infected birds in the United Kingdom. One Health 2022;14:100392. 
  3. ProMED. Avian influenza (45): Europe (UK, Croatia) seal, fox, wild bird, HPAI H5N8. ProMED 2021. Archive no. 20210317.8252821. Available at: 
  4. Pyankova OG, Susloparov IM, Moiseeva AA et al. Isolation of clade A(H5N8), a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, from a worker during an outbreak on a poultry farm, Russia, December 2020. Euro Surveill 2021;26:2100439. 
  5. Rijks JM, Hesselink H, Lollinga P et al. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Wild Red Foxes, the Netherlands, 2021. Emerg Infect Dis 2021;27:2960–2962. 
  6. Floyd T, Banyard AC, Lean FZX et al. Encephalitis and Death in Wild Mammals at a Rehabilitation Center after Infection with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis 2021;27:2856–2863. 
  7. Postel A, King J, Kaiser FK et al. Infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (HPAIV) H5N8 in harbor seals at the German North Sea coast, 2021. Emerg Microbes Infect 2022;11:725–729.

Advances in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

  1. Scully M, Cataland SR, Peyvandi F et al. Caplacizumab Treatment for Acquired Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura. N Engl J Med 2019;380:335–346.