Bulletin references October 2021

A full list of references for the October Bulletin is available here.

You can download a copy of the October 2021 Bulletin from our Bulletin pages.

Pathology in cancer diagnosis and treatment: challenges and opportunities

  1. George J, Gkousis E, Feast A, Morris S, Pollard J, Vohra J. Estimating the Cost of Growing the NHS Cancer Workforce in England by 2029. Available online at: www.cancerresearchuk.org/sites/default/files/estimating_the_cost_of_growing_the_nhs_cancer_workforce_in_england_by_2029_october_2020_-_full_report.pdf 
  2. Chan A-W, Tetzlaff JM, Altman DG, Laupacis A, Gøtzsche PC, Krleža-Jerić K, et al. SPIRIT 2013 Statement: Defining standard protocol items for clinical trials. Ann Intern Med 2013;158:200–207. 
  3. Kendall TJ, Robinson M, Brierly DJ, Lim SJ, O’Connor DJ, Shaaban AM et al. Guidelines for cellular and molecular pathology content in clinical trial protocols: the SPIRIT-Path extension. Lancet Oncol 2021;22:E435–E445. 

Prostate biopsy reporting: the case for a pragmatic approach 

  1. van Leenders GJLH, van der Kwast TH, Grignon DJ, Evans AJ, Kristiansen G, Kweldam CF et al. The 2019 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on Grading of Prostatic Carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol 2020;44:e87–e99. 
  2. Epstein JI, Amin MB, Fine SW, Algaba F, Aron M, Baydar DE et al. The 2019 Genitourinary Pathology Society (GUPS) White Paper on Contemporary Grading of Prostate Cancer. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2021;145:461–493. 
  3. Varma M, Shah RB, Williamson SR, Berney DM. 2019 Gleason grading recommendations from ISUP and GUPS: broadly concordant but with significant differences. Virchows Arch 2021;478:813–815. 
  4. Borges AM, Varma M. Personalized histopathology reporting for personalized medicine. Diagn Histopathol 2021;27:275–278. 
  5. Varma M, Warren AY, Delahunt B. Communicating prostate biopsy results. Diagn Histopathol 2021;27:283–289. 
  6. Varma M, McCluggage WG, Shah V, Berney DM. Pathologists can get it right the first time. J Clin Pathol 2021;74:271–272. 
  7. Varma M, Narahari K, Mason M, Oxley JD, Berney DM. Contemporary prostate biopsy reporting: insights from a survey of clinicians' use of pathology data. J Clin Pathol 2018;71:874–878. 
  8. Arias-Stella JA, Varma KR, Montoya-Cerrillo D, Gupta NS, Williamson SR. Does discontinuous involvement of a prostatic needle biopsy core by adenocarcinoma correlate with a large tumor focus at radical prostatectomy? Am J Surg Pathol 2015;39:281–286. 
  9. Short E, Warren AY, Varma M. Gleason grading of prostate cancer: A pragmatic approach. Diagn Histopathol 2019;25:371–378. 
  10. Danneman D, Drevin L, Delahunt B, Samaratunga H, Robinson D, Bratt O et al. Accuracy of prostate biopsies for predicting Gleason score in radical prostatectomy specimens. Nationwide trends 2000–2012. BJU Int 2017;119:50–56. 
  11. Varma M, Delahunt B, van der Kwast TH, Williamson SR, Berney DM. Borderline Gleason scores: communication is the key. J Clin Pathol 2020;73:616–617. 
  12. Varma M, Epstein JI. Should intraductal component of invasive prostate cancer be graded? Histopathology 2021;78:231–239. 
  13. Varma M. Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate: a guide for the practicing pathologist. Adv Anat Pathol 2021;28:276–287. 

Screening programmes don't just appear out of thin air: a personal reflection on the National Screening Committee and cervical screening programme 

  1. UK Government. UK National Screening Committee – About Us. Available at: www.gov.uk/government/organisations/uk-national-screening-committee/about 
  2. UK Government. UK NSC Recommendations. Available at: https://view-health-screening-recommendations.service.gov.uk/ 
  3. UK Government. Managing Future Changes And The IT That Supports The Delivery Of Screening Programmes. Available at:  https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201719/cmselect/cmpubacc/1746/174607.htm 
  4. Peto J, Gilham C, Fletcher O, Matthews FE. Lancet 2004;364:249–256. 
  5. Cancer Research UK. Cervical Cancer Statistics. Available at: https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/health-professional/cancer-statistics/statistics-by-cancer-type/cervical-cancer#heading-Zero 
  6. Public Health England. Cervical Screening: Invasive Cervical Cancer Audit 2013 to 2016. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/cervical-screening-invasive-cervical-cancer-audit-2013-to-2016 
  7. Public Health England. Recruitment For Cervical Screening Self-Sampling Study Now Underway. Available at: https://phescreening.blog.gov.uk/2021/04/28/cervical-screening-self-sampling-study/). 

Co-creation of a new clinical data science professional development programme 

  1. Budd J, Miller BS, Manning EM, Lampos V, Zhuang M, Edelstein M et al. Digital technologies in the public-health response to COVID-19. Nat Med. 2020;26:1183–1192. 
  2. UK Government. Coronavirus (COVID-19) In The UK – UK Summary. Available at: https://coronavirus.data.gov.uk/ 
  3. Ritchie H, Ortiz-Ospina E, Beltekian D, Mathieu E, Hasell J, Macdonald B et al. Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19). Available at: https://ourworldindata.org/coronavirus 
  4. Health Innovation Manchester. Greater Manchester Care Record. Available at: https://healthinnovationmanchester.com/thegmcarerecord/ 
  5. NHS Health Education England. Topol Digital Fellowships. Available at: https://topol.hee.nhs.uk/digital-fellowships/ 
  6. NHS. National Data Opt-Out. Available at: https://digital.nhs.uk/services/national-data-opt-out 
  7. Davies A, Hooley F, Causey-Freeman P, Eleftheriou I, Moulton G. Using interactive digital notebooks for bioscience and informatics education. PLoS Comput Biol. 2020;16:e1008326. 

Anthony Nolan: returning to a new normal after the COVID-19 pandemic

  1. Ljungman P, Mikulska M, de la Camara R, Basak GW, Chabannon C, Corbacioglu S et al. The challenge of COVID-19 and hematopoietic cell transplantation; EBMT recommendations for management of hematopoietic cell transplant recipients, their donors, and patients undergoing CAR T-cell therapy. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2020;55:2071–2076. 
  2. Orchard K, Dignan FL, Lee J, Pearce R, Desai M, McFarlane E, et al. The NICE COVID-19 rapid guideline on haematopoietic stem cell transplantation: development, implementation and impact. Br J Haematol. 2021;192:467–473. 
  3. British Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy. BSBMT&CT Recommendations for the Management of Adult Patients and Allogeneic Donors during the COVID-19 (Causative Agent of the SARS-CoV-2 Virus) Outbreak. Available at: bsbmtct.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/BSBMTCT-COVID-19-Guidelines-7.0-18th-Apr_Final-.pdf 
  4. British Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy. SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination Following Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant (HSCT) and Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cell (CAR-T) Therapy. Available at: bsbmtct.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/BSBMTCT-SARS-CoV-2-vaccination-statement-15Mar2021.pdf 
  5. Barrett J, Craddock C. Bone marrow transplantation in the United Kingdom – past, present and future. Br J Haematol. 2020;191:612–616. 
  6. Inamoto Y, Lee SJ. Late effects of blood and marrow transplantation. Haematologica. 2017;102:614–625. 
  7. Brice L, Gilroy N, Dyer G, Kabir M, Greenwood M, Larsen S et al. Predictors of quality of life in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation survivors. J Psychosoc Oncol. 2021;19:1–19. 
  8. Song Y, Chen S, Roseman J, Scigliano E, Redd WH, Stadler G. It takes a team to make it through: the role of social support for survival and self-care after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Front Psychol. 2021;12:624906.  

CAR-T therapy in haematological malignancy: an introduction to clinical application and challenges 

  1. Jayaraman J, Mellody M, Hou A, Desai R, Fung A, Pham AHT et al. CAR-T design: elements and their synergistic function. EBioMedicine 2020;58:102931. 
  2. Maude SL, Frey N, Shaw PA, Aplenc R, Barrett, Bunin NJ et al. Chimeric antigen receptor T cells for sustained remissions in leukemia. N Engl J Med 2014;371:1507–1517. 
  3. Maude SL, Laetsch TW, Buechner J, Rives S, Boyer M, Bittencourt H et al. Tisagenlecleucel in children and young adults with b-cell lymphoblastic leukemia. N Engl J Med 2018;378:439–448. 
  4. Ahmad A, Uddin S, Steinhoff M. CAR-T cell therapies: an overview of clinical studies supporting their approved use against acute lymphoblastic leukemia and large B-cell lymphomas. Int J Mol Sci 2020;21:3906. 
  5. NHS England. CAR-T Therapy. Available from: https://www.england.nhs.uk/cancer/cdf/car-t-therapy/ 
  6. Schuster SJ, Bishop MR, Tam CS, Waller EK, Borchmann P, McGuirk JP et al. Tisagenlecleucel in adult relapsed or refractory diffuse large b-cell lymphoma. N Engl J Med 2019;380:45–56. 
  7. Neelapu SS, Locke FL, Bartlett NL, Lekakis LJ, Miklos DB, Jacobson CA et al. Axicabtagene ciloleucel CAR T-cell therapy in refractory large B-cell lymphoma. N Engl J Med 2017;377:2531–2544. 
  8. Wang M, Munoz J, Goy A, Locke Fl, Caron AJ, Hill BT et al. KTE-X19 CAR T-cell therapy in relapsed or refractory mantle-cell lymphoma. N Engl J Med 2020;382:1331–1342. 
  9. Abramson JS, Palomba ML, Gordon LI, Lunning MA, Wang M, Arnason J et al. Lisocabtagene maraleucel for patients with relapsed or refractory large B-cell lymphomas (TRANSCEND NHL 001): a multicentre seamless design study. Lancet 2020;396:839–852. 
  10. Sterner RC, Sterner RM. CAR-T cell therapy: current limitations and potential strategies. Blood Cancer J 2021;11:69.  
  11. Rafiq S, Hackett CS, Brentjens RJ. Engineering strategies to overcome the current roadblocks in CAR T cell therapy. Nat Rev Clin Oncol 2020;17:147–167.  
  12. Kuhnl A, Roddie C, Martinez-Cibrian N, Menne T, Linton K. Real-world data of high grade lymphoma patients treated with CD19 CAR-T in England. Blood 2019;134:767.  
  13. Penack O, Koenecke C. Complications after CD19+ CAR T-cell therapy. Cancers 2020;12:3445.  
  14. Jacobson C, Hunter BD, Redd R, Rodig SJ, Chen PH, Wright K et al. Axicabtagene ciloleucel in the non-trial setting: outcomes and correlates of response, resistance, and toxicity. J Clin Oncol 2020;38:3095–3106. 
  15. Brudno JN, Kochenderfer JN. Recent advances in CAR T-cell toxicity: mechanisms, manifestations and management. Blood Rev 2019;34:45–55. 
  16. Kotch C, Barrett D, Teachey DT. Tocilizumab for the treatment of chimeric antigen receptor t cell-induced cytokine release syndrome. Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2019;15: 813–822. 
  17. Hunter BD, Jacobson CA. CAR T-cell associated neurotoxicity: mechanisms, clinicopathologic correlates, and future directions. J Natl Cancer Inst 2019;111:646–654. 
  18. Jain T, Knezevic A, Pennisi M, Chen Y, Ruiz JD, Purdon TJ et al. Hematopoietic recovery in patients receiving chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy for hematologic malignancies. Blood Adv 2020;4:3776–3787.  
  19. Cappell KM, Sherry RM, Yang JC, Goff SL, Vanasse DA, McIntyre L et al. Long-term follow-up of anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy. J Clin Oncol 2020;38:3805–3815. 

SIHMDS and haematological malignancy: successes and challenges 

  1. NICE. Haematological Cancers: Improving Outcomes. NICE Guideline NG47. Available at: www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng47 
  2. Snowden JA, O’Connell S, Hawkins J, Dalley C, Jack A, Mannari D et al. Haematological cancers: improving outcomes. A summary of updated NICE service guidance in relation to Specialist Integrated Haematological Malignancy Diagnostic Services (SIHMDS). J Clin Pathol 2017;70:461–468. 
  3. Ireland R. Haematological malignancies: the rationale for integrated haematopathology services, key elements of organization and wider contribution to patient care. Histopathology 2011;58:145–154. 
  4. Royal College of Pathologists. Standards for Integrated Reporting in Cellular Pathology. Available at: www.rcpath.org/uploads/assets/442fcdc1-af22-401f-8fcd1b4b65603810/G155-StandardsIntegratedReportingCellPath-Jan17.pdf 
  5. Smith A, Roman E, Howell D, Jones R, Patmore R, Jack A. The Haematological Malignancy Research Network (HMRN): a new information strategy for population based epidemiology and health service research. Br J Haematol 2010;148:739–753. 
  6. Grantham M, Bartram J. Genomic testing for haematological malignancies: the next generation. RCPath Bulletin 2021;194:324–327. 
  7. Dalley C, Basarir H, Wright JG, Fernando M, Pearson D, Ward SE et al. Specialist integrated haematological malignancy diagnostic services: an Activity Based Cost (ABC) analysis of a networked laboratory service model. J Clin Pathol 2015;68:292–300. 
  8. British Society for Haematology. BSH Review of the UK Haematology Clinical Work Force 2019. Available at: https://b-s-h.org.uk/workforce-report/ 

Whole genome sequencing for cancer patients: from gigabases of sequencing data to actionable findings 

  1. Rosenquist R, Cuppen E, Buettner R, Caldas C, Dreau H, Elemento O et al. Clinical utility of whole-genome sequencing in precision oncology. Semin Cancer Biol 2021;25:S1044-579X(21)00189-9. 
  2. Meggendorfer M, Jobanputra V, Wrzeszczynski KO, Roepman P, de Bruijn E, Cuppen E et al. Analytical demands to use whole-genome sequencing in precision oncology. Semin Cancer Biol 2021;10:S1044-579X(21)00179-6. 
  3. Jobanputra V, Wrzeszczynski KO, Buttner R, Caldas C, Cuppen E, Grimmond S et al. Clinical interpretation of whole-genome and whole-transcriptome sequencing for precision oncology. Semin Cancer Biol 2021;10:S1044-579X(21)00197-8. 
  4. Nakagawa H, Fujita M. Whole genome sequencing analysis for cancer genomics and precision medicine. Cancer Sci 2018;109:513–522. 
  5. Gong T, Hayes VM, Chan EKF. Detection of somatic structural variants from short-read next-generation sequencing data. Brief Bioinform 2021;22:bbaa056. 
  6. Alexandrov LB, Kim J, Haradhvala NJ, Huang MN, Ng AW, Wu Y et al. The repertoire of mutational signatures in human cancer. Nature 2020;578:94–101. 
  7. The Cancer Genome Atlas Network. Integrated genomic analyses of ovarian carcinoma. Nature 2011;474:609–615. 
  8. Miller RE, Leary A, Scott CL, Serra V, Lord CJ, Bowtell D, Chang DK et al. ESMO recommendations on predictive biomarker testing for homologous recombination deficiency and PARP inhibitor benefit in ovarian cancer. Ann Oncol 2020;31:1606–1622. 
  9. NICE. Ovarian cancer patients to have NICE-approved drug combination option on Cancer Drugs Fund. Available at: www.nice.org.uk/news/article/ovarian-cancer-patients-to-have-nice-approved-drug-combination-option-on-cancer-drugs-fund 

Cancer genomic testing and the pathologist 

  1. Majeed A, Allwood D, Foley K, Bindman A. Healthcare outcomes and quality in the NHS: how do we compare and how might the NHS improve? BMJ 2018;362:k3026. 
  2. NHS England. NHS Genomic Medicine Service. Available at: www.england.nhs.uk/genomics/nhs-genomic-med-service/ 
  3. Jones JL, Oien KA, Lee JL, Salto-Tellez M. Morphomolecular pathology: setting the framework for a new generation of pathologists. Br J Cancer 2017;117:bjc2017340. 
  4. Pestana RC, Sen S, Hobbs BP, Hong DS. Histology-agnostic drug development — considering issues beyond the tissue. Nat Rev Clin Oncol 2020;17:555–568. 
  5. NICE. Larotrectinib For Treating NTRK Fusion-Positive Solid Tumours. Available at: www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ta630 
  6. NHS North East and Yorkshire Genomics. Cancer: Solid Tumours. Available at: https://ney-genomics.org.uk/genomic-laboratory-hub-services/solid-tumours-cancer/ 
  7. Arumugan P, Nelan R, Jones, L. The 100,000 Genomes Project: research and clinical legacy. RCPath Bull. 2021;194:320. 
  8. European Chemicals Agency. Worker Exposure to Formaldehyde and Formaldehyde Releasers. Published 2019. Available at: https://echa.europa.eu/documents/10162/13641/investigationreport_formaldehyde_workers-exposure_final_en.pdf/ac457a0c-378d-4eae-c602-c7cd59abc4c5 
  9. UK Parliament. Formaldehyde: Industrial Health and Safety HL17390. Written Questions, Answers and Statements. Available at: https://questions-statements.parliament.uk/written-questions/detail/2019-07-23/HL17390 
  10. European Parliament and of the Council. Directive (EU) 2019/983 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 June 2019 Amending Directive 2004/37/EC on the Protection of Workers from the Risks Related to Exposure to Carcinogens or Mutagens at Work. Available at: www.legislation.gov.uk/eudr/2019/983 
  11. Benerini Gatta L, Cadei M, Balzarini P, Castriciano S, Paroni R, Verzeletti A et al. Application of alternative fixatives to formalin in diagnostic pathology. Eur J Histochem 2012;56;e12. 
  12. Smith J, Faria CSAA, Qvist CC, Melchior LC, Lauridsen T. Prolonging fixation time of an alternative fixative to formalin for dermatological samples using standard laboratory protocols. J Clin Pathol 2021;74:149–156. 
  13. Cummings M, King H, Hurst J, Tanner G, Khazin L, Thompson P et al. Decreasing formalin concentration improves quality of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens without compromising tissue morphology or immunohistochemical staining. J Clin Pathol 2020;73:514–518. 
  14. Health and Safety Executive. Safe Working and the Prevention of Infection in Clinical Laboratories and Similar Facilities. Published 2003. Available at: www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/clinical-laboratories.pdf 
  15. Sanger F. Sequences, sequences, and sequences. Annu Rev Biochem 1988;57:1–29. 
  16. Slatko BE, Gardner AF, Ausubel FM. Overview of next-generation sequencing technologies. Curr Protoc Mol Biol 2018;122:1–11. 
  17. Benjamini Y, Speed TP. Summarizing and correcting the GC content bias in high-throughput sequencing. Nucleic Acids Res 2012;40:e72. 
  18. Illumina. Illumina Images for General Use. Available at: https://emea.illumina.com/company/news-center/multimedia-images.html 
  19. EMBL-EBI. Ion Torrent: Proton/PGM sequencing. Available at: www.ebi.ac.uk/training/online/courses/functional-genomics-ii-common-technologies-and-data-analysis-methods/next-generation-sequencing/ion-torrent-proton-pgm-sequencing/ 
  20. Oxford Nanopore Sequencing. Nanopore Sequencing. Available at: http://tiramisutes.github.io/2017/10/21/Oxford-Nanopore-sequencing.html 
  21. Eid J, Fehr A, Gray J, Luong K, Lyle J, Otto G et al. Real-time DNA sequencing from single polymerase molecules. Science 2009;323:133–138. 
  22. Rothberg JM, Hinz W, Rearick TM, Schultz J, Mileski W, Davey M et al. An integrated semiconductor device enabling non-optical genome sequencing. Nature 2011;475:348–352. 
  23. Illumina. Illumina Sequencing Technology. Available at: https://youtu.be/fCd6B5HRaZ8​ 
  24. Oxford Nanopore Diagnostics. DNA sequencing. Oxford Nanopore Technologies. Available at: http://nanoporetech.com/applications/dna-nanopore-sequencing 
  25. Mahamdallie SS, Hopmeier D, Young M, Trim C. Pathology workforce and training in genomic medicine. RCPath Bull 2021;194:329. 
  26. NHS England. Genomic Laboratory Hubs. Available at: www.england.nhs.uk/genomics/genomic-laboratory-hubs/ 
  27. NHS England. National Genomic Test Directories. Available at: www.england.nhs.uk/publication/national-genomic-test-directories/  
  28. The Royal College of Pathologists. Genomics in Medicine. Available at: www.rcpath.org/discover-pathology/public-affairs/genomic-medicine.html 
  29. HM Government. Genome UK: The Future of Healthcare. Available at: www.gov.uk/government/publications/genome-uk-the-future-of-healthcare 

What have been the major contributions of pathology to managing COVID-19? 

  1. World Health Organization. Pneumonia of unknown origin- China. Accessed 14 May 2021. Available from: www.who.int/csr/don/05-january-2020-pneumonia-of-unkown-cause-china/en/  
  2. Edward Holmes. Novel 2019 Coronavirus Genome. Accessed 14 May 2021. Available from: https://virological.org/t/novel-2019-coronavirus-genome/319 
  3. Director General of Health, Malaysia. Laboratory readiness for detecting the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCOV) infection in Malaysia. Accessed 14 May 2021. Available from: https://kpkesihatan.com/2020/02/13/laboratory-readiness-for-detecting-the-2019-novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov-infection-in-malaysia/ 
  4. US Food and Drug Administration. EUA Authorized Serology Test Performance. Accessed 14 May 2021. Available from: www.fda.gov/medical-devices/coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19-emergency-use-authorizations-medical-devices/eua-authorized-serology-test-performance 
  5. Department of Health and Social Care. Oxford University and PHE confirm high sensitivity of lateral flow tests. Accessed 14 May 2021. Available from: www.gov.uk/government/news/oxford-university-and-phe-confirm-high-sensitivity-of-lateral-flow-tests 
  6. Deshmukh V, Motwani R, Kumar A, Kumari C, Raza K. Histopathological observations in COVID-19: a systematic review. J Clin Pathol 2020;74:76−83. 
  7. The RECOVERY Collaborative Group. Dexamethasone in hospitalised patients with COVID-19. N Engl J Med 2021;384:693−704. 
  8. Public Health England. Confirmed cases of COVID-19 variants identified in UK. Accessed 14 May 2021. Available from: www.gov.uk/government/news/confirmed-cases-of-covid-19-variants-identified-in-uk 
  9. Voysey M, Costa Clemens SA, Madhi SA, Weckx LY, Folegatti PM, Aley PK et al. Safety and efficacy of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (AZD1222) against SARS-CoV-2: an interim analysis of four randomised controlled trials in Brazil, South Africa and the UK. The Lancet 2021;397: 99−111. 
  10. Pollack FP, Thomas SJ, Kitchin N, Absalon J, Gurtman A, Lockhart S et al. Safety and efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID vaccine. N Engl J Med 2020;383:2603−2615. 
  11. Baden LR, El-Sahly HM, Essink B, Kotloff K, Frey S, Novak R et al. Efficacy and safety of mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. N Engl J Med 2021;384:403−416. 
  12. Charlie Campbell/Shanghai. Exclusive: The Chinese scientist who sequenced the first COVID-19 genome speaks out about the controversies surrounding his work. Accessed 14 May 2021. Available from: https://time.com/5882918/zhang-yongzhen-interview-china-coronavirus-genome/ 
  13. World Health Organization. Diagnostic detection of 2019-nCoV by real-time PCR. Accessed 14 May 2021. Available from: www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/protocol-v2-1.pdf?sfvrsn=a9ef618c_2 
  14. Chen Y, Chen L, Deng Q, Zhang G, Wu K, Ni L et al. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the feces of COVID-19 patients. J Med Virol 2020;92:833−840. 
  15. Department for Environment, Health and Rural Affairs, Environmental Agency, Department of Health and Social Care, The Rt Honourable George Eustice MP, The Rt Honourable Matt Hancock, MP. Sewage signals early warning of coronavirus outbreaks. Accessed 14 May 2021. Available from: www.gov.uk/government/news/sewage-signals-early-warning-of-coronavirus-outbreaks 
  16. The Royal College of Pathologists. COVID-19 testing: a national strategy. Accessed 14 May 2021. Available from: www.rcpath.org/uploads/assets/2e8d8771-f85a-408a-b5c8e68969cd21d5/5293a4bb-cd96-42ff-8de231d47e637aab/RCPath-COVID-19-testing-a-national-strategy.pdf 
  17. James Gallagher. New Coronavirus variant: What do we know? Accessed 14 May 2021. Available from: www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-55388846 
  18. Schurink B, Roos E, Radonic T, Barbe E, Bouman CSC, de Boer HH et al. Viral presence and immunopathology in patients with lethal COVID-19: a prospective autopsy cohort study. Lancet Microbe 2020;1:e290−e299. 
  19. Dagens A, Sigfrid L, Cai E, Lipworth S, Cheng V, Harris E et al. Scope, quality and inclusivity of clinical guidelines produced early in the COVID-19 pandemic: rapid review. BMJ 2020;369:m1936. 
  20. NHS England. COVID-19 treatment developed in the NHS saves a million lives. Accessed 14 May 2021. Available from: www.england.nhs.uk/2021/03/covid-treatment-developed-in-the-nhs-saves-a-million-lives/ 
  21. University of Oxford. Oxford team to begin novel coronavirus vaccine research. Accessed 14 May 2021. Available from: www.ox.ac.uk/news/2020-02-07-oxford-team-begin-novel-coronavirus-vaccine-research 
  22. BioNTech. BioNTech signs collaboration agreement with Pfizer to develop mRNA based vaccines for prevention of influenza. Accessed 14 May 2021. Available from: https://biontechse.gcs-web.com/news-releases/news-release-details/biontech-signs-collaboration-agreement-pfizer-develop-mrna-based 
  23. Andrew Pollack. AstraZeneca makes a bet on an untested technique. Accessed 14 May 2021. Available from: www.nytimes.com/2013/03/21/business/astrazeneca-to-pay-240-million-to-moderna-therapeutics.html 
  24. Pfizer. BioNTech and Pfizer announce completion of dosing for first cohort of COVID-19 vaccine candidates in Germany. Accessed 14 May 2021. Available from: https://investors.pfizer.com/investor-news/press-release-details/2020/BioNTech-and-Pfizer-announce-completion-of-dosing-for-first-cohort-of-Phase-1-2-trial-of-COVID-19-vaccine-candidates-in-Germany/default.aspx 
  25. National Institutes of Health. NIH clinical trial of investigational vaccine for COVID-19 begins. Accessed 14 May 2021. Available from: www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/nih-clinical-trial-investigational-vaccine-covid-19-begins 
  26. Roche. Roche launches new quantitative antibody test to measure SARS-CoV-2 antibodies to support the development of vaccines. Accessed 14 May 2021. Available from: www.roche.com/media/releases/med-cor-2020-09-18b.htm 

Testing strategies for managing COVID-19 

  1. World Health Organization. WHO Press Conference. 2020. Accessed 20 April 2021. Available from: www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019 
  2. Office for National Statistics. Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection Survey, UK. 2021. Accessed 20 April 2021. Available from: www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/coronaviruscovid19infectionsurveypilot/previousReleases 
  3. Department of Health and Social Care. Clinical evaluation confirms accuracy of LAMP test. Published December 2020. Available from: www.gov.uk/government/news/clinical-evaluation-confirms-accuracy-of-lamp-test 
  4. MacDonald A. LAMP-Based Testing for COVID-19. Published September 2020. Accessed 20 April 2021. Available from: www.technologynetworks.com/diagnostics/blog/lamp-based-testing-for-covid-19-340508 
  5. Mahase E. Covid-19: Universities roll out pooled testing of students in bid to keep campuses open. BMJ 2020;370:m3789. 
  6. Michael-Kordatou I, Karaolia P, Fatta-Kassinos D. Sewage analysis as a tool for the COVID-19 pandemic response and management: the urgent need for optimised protocols for SARS-CoV-2 detection and quantification. J Environ Chem Eng 2020;8:104306. 
  7. Garcia-Beltran WF, Lam EC, Astudillo MG, Yang D, Miller TE, Feldman J et al. COVID-19 neutralizing antibodies predict disease severity and survival. Cell 2021;184:476−488. 
  8. World Health Organization. Tracking SARS-CoV-2 variants. Published 2021. Accessed 20 April 2021. Available from: www.who.int/en/activities/tracking-SARS-CoV-2-variants 
  9. US Food & Drug Administration. Genetic Variants of SARS-CoV-2 May Lead to False Negative Results with Molecular Tests for Detection of SARS-CoV-2 - Letter to Clinical Laboratory Staff and Health Care Providers. Published January 2021. Available from: www.fda.gov/medical-devices/letters-health-care-providers/genetic-variants-sars-cov-2-may-lead-false-negative-results-molecular-tests-detection-sars-cov-2 

Supporting informed patient choice about blood transfusion 

  1. Booth C, Grant-Casey J, Lowe D, Court EL, Allard S. National Comparative Audit of Blood Transfusion Project Group for Patient Information and Consent. National Comparative Audit of Blood Transfusion: report on the 2014 audit of patient information and consent. Transfus Med 2018;28:271-276. 
  2. Department of Health and Social Care. Guidelines from the expert advisory committee on the Safety of Blood, Tissues and Organs (SaBTO) on patient consent for blood transfusion. Published 17 December 2020. Available at: www.gov.uk/government/publications/blood-transfusion-patient-consent/guidelines-from-the-expert-advisory-committee-on-the-safety-of-blood-tissues-and-organs-sabto-on-patient-consent-for-blood-transfusion 

Changing focus: well-being and support in pathology

  1. General Medical Council. National training survey 2021 results. Available from: www.gmc-uk.org/-/media/documents/national-training-survey-results-2021---summary-report_pdf-87050829.pdf 

Matching blood with computer intelligence: the future of red cell transfusion in the NHS? 

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  2. Adams RJ, Brambilla D. Discontinuing prophylactic transfusions used to prevent stroke in sickle cell disease. N Engl J Med 2005;353:2769–2778. 
  3. De Baun MR, Gordon M, McKinstry RC, Noetzel MJ, White DA, Sarnaik SA et al. Controlled trial of transfusions for silent cerebral infarcts in sickle cell anemia. N Engl J Med 2014;371:699–710. 
  4. Trompeter S, Bolton-Maggs P, Ryan K, Shah F, Estcourt L, Cho G et al. National comparative audit of blood transfusion: 2014 audit of transfusion services and practice in children and adults with sickle cell disease. Transfus Med 2020;30:186–195. 
  5. Davis BA, Allard S, Qureshi A, Porter JB, Pancham S, Win N et al. Guidelines on red cell transfusion in sickle cell disease. Part I: Principles and laboratory aspects. Br J Haematol 2017;176:179–191. 
  6. Vichinsky EP, Earles A, Johnson ARA, Hoag MS, Williams A, Lubin B. Alloimmunization in sickle cell anemia and transfusion of racially unmatched blood. N Engl J Med 1990;322;1617–1621. 
  7. Gleadall NS, Veldhuisen B, Gollub J, Butterworth AS, Ord J, Penkett CJ et al. Development and validation of a universal blood donor genotyping platform: a multinational prospective study. Blood Adv 2020;4:3495–3506. 

Reducing inappropriate referrals and improving rest period for microbiology trainees

  1. Lim J, Dinges DF. A Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Short-Term Sleep Deprivation on Cognitive Variables. Psychol Bull 2010;136:375−389. 
  2. BMA. Guidance for non-resident on-call rotas. July 2021. https://www.bma.org.uk/pay-and-contracts/working-hours/work-schedule/managing-rotas-and-duty-rosters-for-junior-doctors-in-england/guidance-for-non-resident-on-call-rotas 

Using CareFlow to improve healthcare communication in medical microbiology

  1. Best J. Slow death of the bleep: why hospital pagers won’t die. BMJ 2021;372:n684.