Bulletin references January 2023

A full list of references for the January Bulletin is available here.

You can download a copy of the January 2023 Bulletin from our Bulletin pages.

Achievements and challenges in pathology:
Five years of digital pathology at the College

  1. The Royal College of Pathologists. Best Practice Recommendations for Implementing Digital Pathology. 2018. Available at: www.rcpath.org/resourceLibrary/best-practice-recommendations-for-implementing-digital-pathology-pdf.html
  2. National Pathology Imaging Co-operative. Training and Education. Available at: npic.ac.uk/training
  3. The Royal College of Pathologists. Digital Pathology Strategy 2019. Available at: www.rcpath.org/resourceLibrary/digital-pathology-strategy-pdf.html   
  4. The Royal College of Pathologists. Digital Pathology Committee. Available at: https://www.rcpath.org/profession/committees/digital-pathology-committee.html
  5. The Royal College of Pathologists. Guidance for Remote Reporting of Digital Pathology Slides During Periods of Exceptional Service Pressure. Available at: https://www.rcpath.org/resourceLibrary/rcpath-guidance-for-remote-digital-pathology.html
  6. Williams BJ, Brettle D, Aslam M, Barrett P, Bryson G, Cross S et al. Guidance for remote reporting of digital pathology slides during periods of exceptional service pressure: An emergency response from the UK Royal College of Pathologists. J Pathology Inform 2020;11:12. 
  7. Silver D, Huang A, Maddison C, Guez A, Sifre L, van den Driessche G et al. Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search. Nature 2016;529:484–489.

Monkeypox: certainties and uncertainties of a mysterious virus

  1. Bunge EM, Hoet B, Chen L, Lienert F, Weidenthaler H, Baer LR et al. The changing epidemiology of human monkeypox-A potential threat? A systematic review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022;16:e0010141.
  2. Chen N, Li G, Liszewski K, Atkinson JP, Jahrling PB, Feng Z et al. Virulence differences between monkeypox virus isolates from West Africa and the Congo basin. Virology 2005;340:46–63. 
  3. Thornhill JP, Barkati S, Walmsley S, Rockstroh J, Antinori A, Harrison LB et al. Monkeypox virus infection in humans across 16 countries – April–June 2022. N Engl J Med 2022;387:679–691. 
  4. Isidro J, Borges V, Pinto M, Sobral D, Santos JD, Nunes A et al. Phylogenomic characterization and signs of microevolution in the 2022 multi-country outbreak of monkeypox virus. Nat Med 2022;28:1569–1572.
  5. Elde NC, Child SJ, Eickbush MT, Kitzman JO, Rogers KS, Shendure J et al. Poxviruses deploy genomic accordions to adapt rapidly against host antiviral defenses. Cell 2012;150:831–841. 
  6. Delany KP, Sanchez T, Hannah M, Edwards OW, Carpino T, Agnew-Brune C et al. Strategies adopted by gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men to prevent monkeypox virus transmission – United States, August 2022. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2022;71:1126–1130. 
  7. Delany KP, Sanchez T, Hannah M, Edwards OW, Carpino T, Agnew-Brune C et al. Strategies adopted by gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men to prevent monkeypox virus transmission – United States, August 2022. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2022;71:1126–1130. 

The blood culture pathway: raising the bar for pathology

  1. NHS England. Improving the Blood Culture Pathway – Executive Summary. Available at: https://www.england.nhs.uk/publication/improving-the-blood-culture-pathway-executive-summary
  2. Lewis T, Sturgess I, Kavi J, Weinbren M. The results of three surveys (local, regional and national) of blood culture practice. Bull R College Pathol 2015;171:194–196.
  3. UK Government. Pathology Quality Assurance Review. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/pathology-quality-assurance-review
  4. General Medical Council. Shape of Training – Securing the Future of Excellent Patient Care. Available at: https://www.gmc-uk.org/-/media/documents/shape-of-training-final-report_pdf-53977887.pdf
  5. UK Health Security Agency. SMI B37: Investigation of Blood Cultures (For Organisms Other than Mycobacterium Species), 2014. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/smi-b-37-investigation-of-blood-cultures-for-organisms-other-than-mycobacterium-species
  6. Lamy B, Ferroni A, Henning C, Cattoen C, Laudat P. How to: accreditation of blood cultures' proceedings. A clinical microbiology approach for adding value to patient care. Clin Microbiol Infect 2018;24:956–963.
  7. Cowling P, Croal B. Quality in pathology: Setting the benchmark for others. Bull R College Pathol 2014;166:104–112.
  8. Kadri SS, Lai YL, Warner S, Strich JR, Babiker A, Ricotta EE, et al. Inappropriate empirical antibiotic therapy for bloodstream infections based on discordant in-vitro susceptibilities: a retrospective cohort analysis of prevalence, predictors, and mortality risk in US hospitals. Lancet Infect Dis 2021;21:241–251.  
  9. Weinbren MJ, Collins M. A request for standardization of publishing of blood culture processing interventions. Clin Infect Dis 2018;66:1484–1485.  

Vicki Chalker: NHS Blood and Transplant’s new Chief Scientific Officer

  1. NHS Blood and Transplant. A History of Donation, Transfusion and Transplantation. Available at: https://www.nhsbt.nhs.uk/who-we-are/a-history-of-donation-transfusion-and-transplantation
  2. Coluzzi S, Revelli N, Baluce B. A new blood group system: scientific relevance and media resonance. Blood Transfus 2022;20:441–442.
  3. Peacock S, Briggs D, Barnardo M, Battle R, Brookes P, Callaghan C, et al.  BSHI/BTS guidance on crossmatching before deceased donor kidney transplantation. Int J Immunogenet 2022;49:22–29.
  4. Dzik S, Murphy M. Recommended papers of 2021 from the TMR Editorial Board. Transfus Med Rev 2022;
  5. NHS Blood and Transplant. Blood and Transplant Research Units. Available at: BTRUs - Research and Development - NHS Blood and Transplant (nhsbt.nhs.uk)

The role of the UK Transfusion Laboratory Collaborative in improving laboratory practice

  1. Chaffe B, Jones J, Milkins C, Taylor C, Asher D, Glencross H, et al. Recommended minimum standards for hospital transfusion laboratories. The Biomedical Scientist. 2009;53:9.
  2. Chaffe B, Jones J, Milkins C, Taylor C, Asher D, Glencross H, et al. Recommended minimum standards for hospital transfusion laboratories. Transfus Med 2009;19:156–158.  
  3. Chaffe B, Glencross H, Jones J, Staves J, Capps-Jenner A, Mistry H, et al. UK Transfusion Laboratory Collaborative: minimum standards for staff qualifications, training, competency and the use of information technology in hospital transfusion laboratories 2014. Transfus Med 2014;24:335–340.  
  4. Health & Care Professions Council. Standards of Proficiency. Available at:
  5. UK Government. Blood Safety and Quality Regulations. 2005. Available at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2005/50/contents/made
  6. Bolton-Maggs P, Mistry H, Glencross H, Rook R. Staffing in hospital transfusion laboratories: UKTLC surveys show cause for concern. Transfus Med 2019;29:95–102.  
  7. Serious Hazards of Transfusion. UK Transfusion Laboratories Culture Survey Report 2019 – Summary. 2019. Availabe at: https://www.shotuk.org/wp-content/uploads/myimages/Culture-Survey-2019-Summary.pdf 
  8. Osaro E, Chima N. Challenges of a negative work load and implications on morale, productivity and quality of service delivered in NHS laboratories in England. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2014;4:421–429. 

Blood shortage in England: why did it happen and what did we learn?

  1. National Blood Transfusion Committee. Red Cell Shortage Plan July 2022. Available at: https://www.transfusionguidelines.org/uk-transfusion-committees/national-blood-transfusion-committee/responses-and-recommendations  
  2. National Blood Transfusion Committee. Platelet Shortage Plan July 2022. Available at: https://www.transfusionguidelines.org/document-library/documents/14-10-2022-nbtc-platelet-shortage-plan-july-2022-pdf/download-file/14%2010%202022%20NBTC%20Platelet%20shortage%20plan%20July%202022.pdf  
  3. National Blood Transfusion Committee. Plasma Shortage Plan August 2022. Available at: https://www.transfusionguidelines.org/document-library/documents/final-nbtc-plasma-shortage-plan-aug2022-pdf/download-file/Final%20NBTC%20Plasma%20shortage%20plan%20Aug2022.pdf  
  4. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. NICE Quality Standard [QS138] Blood Transfusion. Available at: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/qs138 
  5. NHS Blood and Transplant. 2021 National Comparative Audit of NICE Quality Standard QS138. Available at: https://nhsbtdbe.blob.core.windows.net/umbraco-assets-corp/25926/2021-nice-qs138-audit-report-generic.pdf  
  6. NHS. Model Health System. Available at: https://model.nhs.uk
  7. NHS Blood and Transplant. Emergency Blood Management Arrangements Shortage Plan Checklist. Available at: https://www.transfusionguidelines.org/document-library/documents/ebma-checklist-version-4/download-file/2223%200235%20EBMA%20checklist%20v4.pdf 
  8. Killick SB, Ingram W, Culligan D, Enright H, Kell J, Payne EM et al. British Society for Haematology guidelines for the management of adult myelodysplastic syndromes. Br J Haematol 2021;194:267–281.   
  9. Aapro M, Beguin Y, Bokemeyer C, Dicato M, Gascón P, Glaspy J et al. Management of anaemia and iron deficiency in patients with cancer: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines. Ann Oncol 2018;29:iv96–iv110.  
  10. Centre for Perioperative Care. Guideline for the Management of Anaemia in the Perioperative Pathway. Available at: https://cpoc.org.uk/guidelines-resources-guidelines/anaemia-perioperative-pathway  
  11. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. NICE guideline [NG24] Blood Transfusion. Available at: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng24  
  12. Federation of Surgical Specialty Associations. Clinical Guide to Surgical Prioritisation in the recovery from the Coronavirus Pandemic. Available at: https://fssa.org.uk/_userfiles/pages/files/covid19/prioritisation_master_28_01_22.pdf 

On the agenda:
Recommendations from pathologists in the Report on Experts in the Family Justice System

  1. Working Group on Medical Experts in the Family Courts. The President of the Family Division Working Group on Medical Experts in the Family Courts Final Report. 2020. Available at: https://www.judiciary.uk/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/Working-Group-on-Medical-Experts-Final-Report-v.7.pdf 
  2. McFarlane A. Re G (Child Post-Mortem Report: Delays). 2022. Available at: https://www.bailii.org/ew/cases/EWFC/HCJ/2022/55.html

Sharing our subject:
Hugh Platt Foundation essay competition: How has pathology changed in the last 60 years?

  1. NHS England. Digital First: Clinical Transformation through Pathology Innovation. 2014. Available at: https://www.england.nhs.uk/wpcontent/uploads/2014/02/pathol-dig-first.pdf
  2. Croxatto A, Prod'hom G, Greub G. Applications of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry in clinical diagnostic microbiology. FEMS Microbiol Rev 2012;36:380–407.  
  3. British Association of Sexual Health and HIV. 2015 BASHH CEG guidance on tests for Sexually Transmitted Infections. 2015. Available at: https://www.bashhguidelines.org/media/1084/sti-testing-tables-2015-dec-update-4.pdf
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (NAATs). 2022. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/lab/naats.html
  5. World Health Organization. New WHO Recommendations Issued to Improve Access to Rapid Molecular Tests for the Detection of TB and Drug-resistant TB. 2021. Available at: https://www.who.int/news/item/07-072021-new-who-recommendations-issued-to-improve-access-to-rapid-molecular-tests-for-the-detection-of-tb-and-drugresistant-tb
  6. World Health Organization. Antimicrobial Resistance. 2021. Available at: https://www.who.int/newsroom/fact-sheets/detail/antimicrobial-resistance  
  7. Public Health England. Information for Patients on the Infected Blood Inquiry. 2019. Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/813205/Information_for_patients_on_the_Infected_Blood_Inquiry.pdf
  8. Science Museum Group. Blood Transfusion Bottle, Capped, with Associated Parts, England, 1978. Available at: https://collection.sciencemuseumgroup.org.uk/objects/co143316/blood-transfusion-bottle-capped-with-associatedparts-england-1978-blood-transfusion-apparatus
  9. Caggana M, Jones E, Shahied S, Tanksley S, Hermerath C, Lubin I. Newborn screening: From Guthrie to whole genome sequencing. Pub Health Rep 2013;128:14–19.  
  10. NHS. Newborn Blood Spot Test. 2021. Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/baby/newborn-screening/blood-spot-test/ 
  11. Pylypiw L. Newborn Blood Spot Screening Turns 50. 2020. Available at: https://phescreening.blog.gov.uk/2020/01/15/blood-spot-screening-50/ 
  12. Elborn S. The History, and the Future, of Cystic Fibrosis. Accessed May 2022. Available at: https://www.rbht.nhs.uk/blog/history-and-future-cystic-fibrosis  
  13. National Human Genome Research Institute. What is the Human Genome Project? Accessed May 2022. Available at: https://www.genome.gov/about-genomics/educational-resources/fact-sheets/human-genome-project  
  14. Cystic Fibrosis Trust. Kaftrio (Trikafta in the US) – Triple Combination Therapy. Accessed May 2022. Available at: https://www.cysticfibrosis.org.uk/the-work-we-do/campaigning-hard/life-saving-drugs/triple-combination-therapy 
  15. European Commission. Personalised Medicine. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/health/medicinal-products/personalised-medicine_en 
  16. Rakha E, Pinder S, Bartlett J, Ibrahim M, Starczynski J, Carder P et al. Updated UK recommendations for HER2 assessment in breast cancer. J Clin Pathol 2015;68:93–99. 

Paola Domizio Undergraduate essay competition: Which one scientific discovery or pathologist has had the most significant impact on medicine/pathology in the last 60 years?

  1. Crow EW, Crow JF. 100 years ago: Walter Sutton and the chromosome theory of heredity. Genetics 2002;160:1–4.
  2. Watson JD,  Crick FH. Molecular structure of nucleic acids; a structure for deoxyribose nucleic acid. Nature 1953;171:737–738.
  3. Nirenberg M, Leder P, Bernfield M, Brimacombe R, Trupin J, Rottman F et al. RNA codewords and protein synthesis, VII. On the general nature of the RNA code. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1965;53:1161–1168.
  4. Pierce BA. Genetics: A Conceptual Approach. New York, USA: WH Freeman, 2019. 
  5. Alberts B. Molecular Biology of the Cell. New York, USA: Garland Science, 2017. 
  6. McCourt CM, McArt DG, Mills K, Catherwood MA, Maxwell P, Waugh DJ et al. Validation of next generation sequencing technologies in comparison to current diagnostic gold standards for BRAF, EGFR and KRAS mutational analysis. PLoS One 2013;8:e69604.
  7. Rose EA. Applications of the polymerase chain reaction to genome analysis. FASEB J 1991;5:46–54.
  8. Hutter C, Zenklusen JC. The Cancer Genome Atlas: Creating lasting value beyond its data. Cell 2018;173:283–285.  
  9. Kim-Hellmuth S, Aguet F, Oliva M, Muñoz-Aguirre M, Kasela S, Wucher V et al. Cell type-specific genetic regulation of gene expression across human tissues. Science 2020;369:eaaz8528. 
  10. Goswami RS. PCR techniques in next-generation sequencing. Methods Mol Biol 2016;1392:143–151. 
  11. Metzker ML. Sequencing technologies – the next generation. Nat Rev Genet 2010;11: 31–46. 
  12. Loscalzo J, Fauci AS, Kasper DL. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, Twenty-First Edition (Vol.1 & Vol.2). New York, USA: McGraw-Hill Education, 2022. 
  13. Chung YS, Lee NJ, Woo SH, Kim JM, Kim HM, Jo HJ et al. Validation of real-time RT-PCR for detection of SARS-CoV-2 in the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak in the Republic of Korea. Sci Rep 2021;11:14817. 
  14. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. High-throughput Non-invasive Prenatal Testing for Fetal RHD Genotype. Available at: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/dg25 
  15. Mullis KB, Smith M. Nobel Lecture. Available at: https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/chemistry/1993/mullis/lecture/

Working smarter:
BRAIN UK: facilitating research with NHS diagnostic archives

  1. Wilkins B. The Retention and Storage of Pathological Records and Specimens (5th edition). London, UK: The Royal College of Pathologists, 2015. Available at: https://www.rcpath.org/profession/guidelines/cross-specialty-publications.html  
  2. Nicoll JAR, Bloom T, Clarke A, Boche D, Hilton D. BRAIN UK: Accessing NHS tissue archives for neuroscience research. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 2022;48:e12766. 
  3. Apps JR, Carreno G, Gonzalez-Meljem JM, Haston S, Guiho R, Cooper JE et al. Tumour compartment transcriptomics demonstrates the activation of inflammatory and odontogenic programmes in human adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma and identifies the MAPK/ERK pathway as a novel therapeutic target. Acta Neuropathol 2018;135:757–777. 
  4. Barber H, Tofias A, Lander B, Daniels A, Gong J, Ren Y et al. Advanced molecular characterization using digital spatial profiling technology on immunooncology targets in methylated compared with unmethylated IDH-wildtype glioblastoma. J Oncol 2021;2021:8819702. 
  5. Pickles JC, Fairchild AR, Stone TJ, Brownlee L, Merve A, Yasin SA et al. DNA methylation-based profiling for paediatric CNS tumour diagnosis and treatment: a population-based study. Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2020;4:121–130. 
  6. Dunn J, Ferluga S, Sharma V, Futschik M, Hilton DA, Adams CL et al. Proteomic analysis discovers the differential expression of novel proteins and phosphoproteins in meningioma including NEK9, HK2 and SET and deregulation of RNA metabolism. EBioMedicine 2019;40:77–91. 

Clinical effectiveness:
An audit to assess reporting of endometrial carcinomas on biopsy specimens and their concordance with hysterectomy specimens

  1. Panici PB, Basile S, Maneschi F, Lissoni AA, Signorelli M, Scambia G et al. Systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy vs. no lymphadenectomy in early-stage endometrial carcinoma: randomized clinical trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 2008;100:1707–1716. 
  2. Ganesan R, Singh N, McCluggage WG. Dataset for Histological Reporting of Endometrial Cancer. London, UK: Royal College of Pathologists, 2017. Available at: https://www.rcpath.org/uploads/assets/124ed697-f771-49d0-856958f1a0ae3ed9/G090-Dataset-for-the-histopathological-reporting-of-endometrial-cancer-For-publication.pdf 
  3. Helpman L, Kupets R, Covens A, Saad RS, Khalifa MA, Ismiil N et al. Assessment of endometrial sampling as a predictor of final surgical pathology in endometrial cancer. Br J Cancer 2014;110:609–615.  
  4. Nofech-Mozes S, Ismiil N, Dubé V, Saad RS, Ghorab Z, Grin A et al. Interobserver agreement for endometrial cancer characteristics evaluated on biopsy material. Obstet Gynecol Int 2012;2012:414086.  
  5. Multinu F, Ducie JA, Eriksson AGZ, Schlappe BA, Cliby WA, Glaser GE et al. Role of lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer with nonbulky lymph node metastasis: Comparison of comprehensive surgical staging and sentinel lymph node algorithm. Gynecol Oncol 2019;155:177–185.  
  6. Murali R, Davidson D, Fadare O, Carlson JA, Crum CP, Gilks CB et al. High-grade endometrial carcinomas: Morphologic and immunohistochemical features, diagnostic challenges and recommendations. Int J Gynecal Pathol 2019;38:540–563.  
  7. Kuhn E, Ayhan A. Diagnostic immunohistochemistry in gynaecological neoplasia: a brief survey of the most common scenarios. J Clin Pathol 2018;71:98–109.  
  8. Buza N, Hui P. Immunohistochemistry in gynaecologic pathology. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2017;141:1052–1071.